After more than a day of delays and two weeks of discussions, the UN climate talks in Scotland ended tonight in a global agreement with almost 200 countries from around the world. The agreement stipulates that the countries of the world will update their targets again next year ahead of the annual UN climate conference to be held in Egypt – and not once every five years as stipulated in the Paris Agreement.
Aluk Sharma, the conference’s president, said the agreement was “imperfect” but reflected “consensus and support”. “I hope we can leave this conference united after we have created something meaningful for the people and the planet together,” he said. The conference, in fact, left for next year the preoccupation with the gap between scientists’ warnings about a temperature rise of more than one and a half degrees and actual plans or declarations by countries, which now express a rise of at least 2.4 degrees – if fully met.
If global temperatures rise above 1.5 degrees Celsius, scientists warn that humanity is likely to experience severe effects from extreme climatic events that will become more frequent, protracted and more powerful. Thus, for example, millions more people a year around the world will be exposed to extreme heat. To meet this target, the countries of the world are required to join hands and reduce global emissions by 45% by 2030 and almost zero by the middle of the century.
Criticism of the agreement
The final agreement has not yet been announced, but according to the draft agreement published today by the UN, the countries decide to make efforts to reduce the use of coal and also the huge subsidies that governments around the world give to the oil, coal and gas industries. However, after a long discussion between the countries, it was abruptly decided to change the term “gradually cease” use of coal, to “gradually reduce”.
The change was accepted after last-minute objections submitted by India. This is a decision that has angered quite a few countries, including Switzerland, whose representative in the closing plenum has even expressed its protest on the issue, as it is an issue that has been declared a flagship issue of the conference. Carbon, is the fuel whose carbon content is the highest, and is even the most harmful to health, when burning alone leads to the deaths of millions every year around the world. Coal is responsible for about 40% of carbon emissions each year, making it a major target in efforts to limit global warming to over one and a half.
Fatih Birol, executive director of the International Energy Agency, told the Guardian that more than 40 percent of the world’s 8,500 existing coal plants would have to be closed by 2030, and that no new buildings could be built to meet global warming targets. Highly hope that the advanced economies will take a leading role and become an example to the developing world. If they are not, they should not expect the developing world to do that. “
Poor countries were also left frustrated by the agreement, which they said did not address their concerns about “loss and damage.” The intention is for destruction caused by extreme weather, which is now affecting the poorest and most vulnerable countries, much more and more frequently than they predicted. Developing countries argue that rich countries, whose historical emissions are largely responsible for global warming, must pay more to help them adapt to the consequences, as well as reduce their carbon footprint. Wealthy countries have been reluctant to agree to a broad funding mechanism that will already in the coming years provide $ 100 billion a year for the adaptation of poor countries to the crisis, even though they have the least responsibility for its formation.
The agreement also shows progress regarding the carbon markets and Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, an issue that the states have not been able to resolve for six years since the signing of the Paris Agreement. Despite the many controversies surrounding the issue of markets, the agreement reduces the possibility of double counting of emission offsets, and presents an accounting framework for carbon markets. But environmental groups fear it is a “offsetting scam” that has gained momentum with the creation of new loopholes that endanger nature and the goal of keeping global warming below 30 and a half. The loopholes. “