AGI – Graduating is still worthwhile. This is what the AlmaLaurea 2021 Report on the profile of graduates reveals. In fact, as the level of the qualification held increases, the risk of being ‘trapped’ in the area of unemployment decreases.
Graduates enjoy important employment benefits compared to upper secondary school graduates during their working life: according to the most recent Istat documentation, in 2020 the employment rate of the 20-64 age group was 78% among graduates, compared to 65 , 1% of those with a diploma. Furthermore, the most recent OECD documentation available highlights that, in 2018, a graduate earned 37% more than a secondary school graduate.
At 5 years of age, 88% of graduates work
The effects of the pandemic on graduates at five years of age, who have already entered the labor market for some time, were decidedly more limited in 2020 than for recent graduates. In 2020, 5 years after graduation, the employment rate was 88.1% for first level graduates and 87.7% for second level graduates. Compared to the previous survey, it is down by 0.6 percentage points among first level graduates and up by 0.9 points among second level graduates.
The pandemic has hit women and the Center-North
However, in 2020 the employment rate decreased by 4.9 percentage points for first level graduates and by 3.6 percentage points for second level graduates.
In terms of employment rate, the pandemic seems to have affected mainly women and the areas of the Center-North.
In 2020, the employment rate (which also includes those engaged in paid training activities) was 69.2% among first level graduates and 68.1% among graduates one year after graduation. second level of 2019
The salary is 1,500 euros
In 2020, 5 years after graduation, the net monthly salary is € 1,469 for first level graduates and € 1,556 for second level graduates. Compared to the same survey last year, there was an increase in salaries equal to + 4.3% for first level graduates and + 4.0% for second level graduates. These increases are part of a context characterized by some years of a tendential increase in salaries.
In 2020, five years after graduation, the most widespread form of contract is the permanent employee contract, which affects more than half of the employed. Over 65.0% of employed, at five years of age, consider the degree title “very effective or effective” for the performance of their work.
The net monthly salary after one year after graduation is, in 2020, on average, equal to 1,270 euros for first-level graduates and 1,364 euros for second-level graduates.
Italians graduate at 26
The average age at graduation for all graduates in 2020 is 25.8 years: 24.5 years for first-level graduates, 27.1 for single-cycle master’s and 27.2 years for master’s graduates biennial.
A figure that also takes into account the delay in enrolling in the university course (this is the delay with respect to the ‘canonical’ ages of 19, for the first level degree and the single cycle degree, and 22 years, for the two-year master’s degree), which among 2020 graduates on average is equal to 1.4 years.
The age at graduation has significantly decreased compared to the university system prior to the Reform DM n. 509/1999 and continued to decrease (it was in fact 26.9 years in 2010) until 2018, and then remained almost constant.
Regularity in studies, which measures the ability to complete the degree course within the time limits set by the regulations, has recently registered a constant and marked improvement, albeit in the last year due to the extension of the closure of the academic year granted to students for the Covid-19 emergency. If in 2010 39.0% of graduates completed their studies in progress, in 2020 the percentage reaches 58.4%, in particular 64.3% among two-year masters, 57.7% among first level graduates and 48.6% of single-cycle master’s degrees.
We graduate with 103 out of 110
Moreover, if ten years ago 14.8% of graduates finished their studies with four or more years off course, today the share has almost halved (7.6%). The average graduation grade has essentially remained unchanged in recent years (103.2 out of 110 in 2020, it was 103.0 out of 110 in 2010), but with appreciable variations by type of degree course: 100.1 for first-level graduates, 105.6 for single-cycle masters and 108.0 for two-year master’s degrees.
Among the two-year master’s graduates, the final mark is very high, in particular due to an incremental effect with respect to the performance obtained at the end of the bachelor’s degree program (in 2020 the average increase in the degree mark in the master’s degree compared to the bachelor’s degree is 7.6 points out of 110).
Internship and abroad are the trump cards
Have a training and orientation internship experience carried out and recognized by the degree course or a study experience abroad sare trump cards to play on the job market: all things being equal, in fact, those who have carried out a curricular internship have a 12.2% probability of being employed one year after graduation compared to those who have not carried out this type of activity, while those who have carried out a period of studying abroad is more likely to be employed than those who have never spent a stay abroad, whether it is experiences recognized by their degree program (+ 14.4%), or experiences on personal initiative ( + 10.3%).
Graduates come from the scientific high school
What is the educational background of the 2020 graduates? There is a prevalence of high school diplomas (75.4%) and in particular the scientific (41.3%) and classical (14.7%) diploma. The technical diploma follows with 19.5%, while the incidence of professional diplomas is residual (2.4%). The share of high school graduates in the last ten years has increased considerably, from 68.9% in 2010 to 75.4% in 2020 (+6.5 percentage points), particularly at the expense of graduates with a technical degree, which drop from 25.8% to 19.5%. In terms of composition by type of diploma, limited differences are observed between first level graduates and two-year master’s degrees (high school graduates are respectively 72.6% and 75.1%), while single-cycle graduates are characterized by a strong incidence of high school qualifications: 89.8% in fact have a high school education, in particular scientific (48.6%) and classical (28.6%).
The family context weighs
The family context affects the university choices of young people. 31.6% and 22.5% of AlmaLaurea 2020 graduates come from middle-class families, respectively white-collar and self-employed, and 22.4% from families of higher social class (where the parents are entrepreneurs, free professionals and executives) and 21.9% from families in which parents hold executive professions (blue-collar and executive employees). The percentage of graduates from the highest social backgrounds rises to 33.3% among single-cycle master’s degree graduates, a course of study which, as is well known, involves a longer investment forecast than first-level degrees, an investment that it will often continue with further specialization courses.
Graduates with at least one parent with a university degree is 30.7% (in 2010 they were 26.5%). The cultural and social context of the family also influences the choice of degree course: graduates from families with higher levels of education have more frequently chosen single-cycle master’s degree courses (44.2% have at least one parent with a university degree) compared to graduates who opted for a ‘3 + 2’ path (27.6% for first level graduates and 31.4% for two-year master’s).
The number of graduates with foreign citizenship is increasing
The share of graduates with foreign citizenship is 3.9%. And it is slightly increasing: according to AlmaLaurea data it was equal to 2.9% in 2010. These are increasingly young people who come from immigrant families and resident in Italy: as many as 41.1% of graduates of non-Italian citizenship have obtained a secondary school diploma in our country: this share was 28.2% in 2011.
Instead, the share of foreign citizens in possession of a diploma abroad, probably the segment of the population who moved to Italy at the time of university choice, is 2.3% of the entire population investigated, a percentage almost stable in recent years. The value rises to 4.8% among the two-year masters and falls to 1.3% among the single-cycle masters and to 1.2% among the first level masters.
As regards the origin, while in the totality of foreign citizens, including graduates in Italy, almost half come from Europe (in particular from Romania and Albania, 11.6% and 9.7% respectively), in the group of foreign graduates who have graduated abroad, the share of those coming from Europe drops (35.2%) and the most represented State is, with 10.9%, China.
Foreign graduates who have graduated abroad are directed towards specific disciplinary fields, such as architecture and civil engineering (4.1%), as well as information technology and ICT technologies (4.0%); on the contrary, in three disciplinary groups (education and training, law and, finally, physical and sports sciences), less than 1.0% of foreign graduates with diplomas obtained abroad are less than 1.0%.